the first one :
Heart disease is a major population health problem and a leading cause of death for men, women, and people of most racial and ethnic groups in the United States. In the United States, approximately 655,000 Americans die from heart disease each year; that is one in every four deaths (Benjamin et.al, 2017). Heart disease costs the United States about $219 billion each year, which includes the cost of health care services, medicines, and lost productivity due to death (CDC, 2018). Heart diseases are associated with cardiovascular diseases and are threats to human health. The most common type of heart disease being coronary heart disease. The key risk factors for heart disease include high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, and smoking. Other risk factors are diabetes, overweight and obesity, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol consumption.
There are several health determinants for heart disease, which range from biological, social, behavioral, psychological, and environmental. In terms of biological factors such as gender, genetics, age, ethnicity, and race are factors in determining the likelihood of heart disease. For example, according to CDC (2018), Black-Americans have an increased risk of heart disease. Behaviors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and consuming fast foods have been linked to increased chances of heart disease.
Psychological factors such as stress, depression, anger, and anxiety can produce various responses, which can increase the chances of heart disease. As stated by Kumar (2017|), social factors such as level of income and education make individuals not concentrate to control the risk factors, which ultimately increase the chances of heart disease. Environmental determinants include elements such as pollution and access to health services that influence the chances of heart disease. For example, exposure to chemicals, metals, and pollutants has been documented to increase heart disease by bringing physiological changes in the body (Kumar, 2017).
I chose the topic of depression because of its enormous prevalence, the inability to treat it in a self-way, or the community’s lack of awareness of how to overcome it by psychological counseling that may benefit anyone with this disease without referring to countermeasures. Where research and studies have emerged that show that more than 80% of young people with depression are prescribed anti-depressants, while the percentage of adolescents who give treatment using psychological counseling does not exceed 6%, we have a significant shortage in the psychiatric sector. Hence, doctors resort to anti-depressants in the event of a child and teenager being diagnosed with depression, and it will remain so until such specialists can be found (Jack et al, 2017).
First, we must know the reasons for the spread of this problem. Some determinants worsen and spread, including social determinants of age, gender, and marital status. Regarding gender, in a study conducted on a group of women and men, they found that the incidence of depression among women is double that of men. Still, this does not mean that women are more likely to suffer from depression than men through scientific analysis. But perhaps this is because women acknowledge depression more than men refuse to admit it. Doctors’ ability to recognize depression in women is more accessible. Maybe a group of social pressures that women are constantly exposed to is enough to cause depression. Moreover, there is a group of psychological factors and hormonal changes that women go through, such as hormonal changes in the menstrual period, pregnancy, or menopause, all of these factors are enough to be exposed to one of the episodes of illness during her life, because women in most cases are weaker Of men, psychologically, they are the most likely to suffer from depression (Shittu et al, 2014).
Also, social outreach methods that have become outside the control of the family in many cases, also the increasing speed of modern life in our society, which has made teenagers less monitored by his parents, primarily if the father works. The mother also works in the morning, and after returning, she is busy in her housework. However, there are many familys dependent on the maid, which may lead to confusion in raising a child who becomes a teenager, and he may suffer from psychological problems. There is no one to take his hand and help him solve these problems before you can. There is indeed a difference between psychological problems and mental illnesses. But many psychological problems turn into mental illnesses, especially depression, which we also noticed an increase in the rate of depression among adolescents and children, where a study in the United States of America showed that the rate of depression among adolescents reaches 13%, which is a high number by all measures, especially if we learned that the symptoms of depression in adolescents are different from those of adults, as symptoms take disturbing behavioral patterns for parents such as violence, drug use, and flight from school. This disease may result in legal problems, and the adolescent is treated as a criminal and not as a patient, so many family problems occur (Data and Statistics on Children’s Mental Health, 2020).